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Aloe vera

Aloe vera

Aloe vera is a species of succulent plant that is believed to have originated in the Sudan. It is frequently used in herbal medicine, and there is some evidence that it may be useful in treating wounds and burn healing.[1] In a letter to Freckle, Rocky once asked that Freckle wish him Aloe vera while he was employed as a grill cook.[2]



An amygdala is a portion of the brain.[3] In "Vaudevillian", after Asa jokingly asks Mordecai whether he arranged the pieces of his victims in alphabetical order, Mordecai dryly replies that, "'A' is for amygdala".


An arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal complaint to inform a party accused of a crime of the charges against them. In response, the accused is expected to enter a plea. During an arraignment the presiding judge determines at what amount, if any, to set bail.[4] After Zib and Virgil are arrested, Dom Drago informs them that they will probably be unable to find a judge to arraign them until after the holiday weekend.[5]



Bail is some form of property given to a court to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or forfeit the bail.[6] After Zib and Virgil are arrested, Zib intends to use cash he received from Mitzi to pay bail for them.[5]


A Bakelite letter opener from around 1920

Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride is a plastic that was developed in 1907 by Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland.[7] According to Mordecai in "Interloper", Mitzi's purse is made from Bakelite.


The Barrymores are an American acting family spanning five generations as of October 2011.[8] In "Doublet", Mitzi compares Wick's face to a Barrymore.

Bench warrant

A bench warrant authorizes the immediate on-sight arrest of an individual.[9]. At the time of "Misdemeanor", Zib has an outstanding bench warrant due to his failure to make a court date after being picked up at a hop house.



Bevo was a non-alcholic malt beverage brewed in the United States by Anheuser-Busch and popular during Prohibition. Production ended in 1929.[10] Mitzi, Rocky, Freckle, Asa and Mordecai are offered Bevo while they gather for lunch at the Bevo Mill in "Heartstrings".


Blackguard, pronounced "blaggard", is a term synonymous with "scoundrel".[11] In "Whizbang", Avril, one of the pig farmers, calls Rocky a blackguard.


The Bolsheviks were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. They came to power in Russia in 1917.[12] In "Defiance", Rocky expresses his belief that everyone, except the Bolsheviks, likes pie.


The Breakaway was a popular swing dance from 1919 to 1927.[13] In "Wishy-washy", Ivy asks Freckle whether he knows the Breakaway.


Breeches are a type of garment similar to pants.[14] In "Homestead", Rocky is particularly horrified by the notion of Ivy meeting Nina while wearing breeches.



A cad, also called a rake or rakehell, is a historic term for an immoral man, frequently a heartless womanizer. The term originated in the 17th century.[15] In "Bee-line", Rocky teasingly calls Freckle a cad with regards to Ivy.

Chag Sameach

Chag Sameach is Hebrew for "joyous festival".[16] In "Tannenbaum", Mordecai wishes Viktor a Chag Sameach.


The Charleston was a dance that peaked in popularity around 1926, though the rhythm was popularized in 1923.[17] In "Wishy-washy", Ivy asks Freckle whether he knows the Charleston.

Chloral hydrate

Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug, as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. It was widely used and misprescribed in the late 19th century.[18]. In "Lassitude", Dr. Quackenbush tells Mitzi that he has given Viktor a dose of chloral hydrate while treating his chest injury.


Craps is a dice game in which players place wagers on the outcome of one or multiple rolls. Wikipedia has an article about craps here. Lackadaisy has a craps table that characters use for cover in "Malarkey".



The Dakotas is a collective term referring to North Dakota and South Dakota.[19] In August of 1923, Rocky wrote Freckle a letter that mentioned the Dakotas.[2]



Dionysus was the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy in Greek mythology.[20] In "Bunny-box", Rocky calls Mitzi, "Lady Dionysus".


Dixie is a nickname for the southern United States. According to Wikipedia, the Oxford English Dictionary states that the nickname's origin is obscure, while A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles (1951), by Mitford M. Mathews espouses three possible theories. For more about that, check out the Wikipedia article. In "Somersault", Rocky states that Freckle is as, "dear to (him) as Dixie was to Lee".


Dyspepsia is a fancy term for indigestion.[21] In "Bee-line", Rocky muses that the "high-pitched, screechy noise" Ivy is making as she approaches him and Freckle may be due to dyspepsia.


Escape artist

An escape artist is someone practiced at escaping from restraints or other traps. The art of doing this is called escapology.[22] In a partially-obscured letter to Freckle shown in "Correspondence", Rocky seemed to indicate that he might pursue becoming an escape artist for a circus.


Fé amae

Fé amae is an Irish expression that roughly translates as, "Woe is me!"[23] Upon seeing Rocky and Freckle making a mess of her rhododendrons in "Slipshod", Nina exclaims, "Fé amae!"


A 1908 ad for a Flivver
Freckle's Flivver

A flivver is a car, generally a small, cheap, old car.[24] In "Latecomer", Ivy refers to Freckle's car as a flivver. As Ford Model T's in particular were called flivvers[25], this may suggest that Freckle's car is such a model.



A gadabout may be either a person who travels restlessly or aimlessly, or one who travels frequently for pleasure.[26] In a letter to Freckle, Rocky once referred to himself as a gadabout.[2]


A gam is a leg, particularly an attractive female leg.[27] In "Baby Vamp" Freckle refers to a passing woman's gams.




Hephaestus was the Greek god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes. His Roman equivalent was Vulcan.[28] In a letter to Freckle that Rocky sent while working as a grill cook, he said, "Hephaestus help me!"[2]


Hibernia (Ireland)

Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for Ireland.[29] In "Shenanigans", Nina refers to Ireland as Hibernia.


A hostler is a person employed in a stable to take care of horses.[30] In "Correspondence", one of Rocky's letters to Freckle seems to mention that a hostler suggested that Rocky would make a good escape artist.


Irish reel

Irish reel is a style of dance that involves complex figurations and styling. It may be a solo or set dance. Reel itself is a musical style.[31] In a letter to Freckle dated August, 1923, Rocky notes that a number of wasps he found inside a fiddle did not appreciate Irish reel music.[2]



Kankakee, Illinois

Kankakee is a city located in Illinois.[32] Rocky's uncle was living in Kankakee in July 1921, when Rocky wrote Freckle a letter from his uncle's home.[2]


Kneecapping is a form of malicious wounding that involves injuring a victim's knee joint and kneecap, often with a firearm.[33] "Heartstrings" establishes that Mordecai kneecapped Viktor as part of an attempt to convince Viktor to retire, shortly before Mordecai left Lackadaisy.



Robert E. Lee

Robert Edward Lee (1807-1870) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War.[34] In "Somersault", Rocky states that Freckle is as, "dear to (him) as Dixie was to Lee", most likely a reference to Robert E. Lee.

Little Lord Fauntleroy

Little Lord Fauntleroy is an English novel written by Frances Hodgson Burnett. It was first published as a serial between 1885-1886. The accompanying illustrations by Reginald Birch set fashion trends.[35] In "Academia", Rocky refers to Wick as Little Lord Fauntleroy, likely referring to his appearance and genteel personality.

Lindy Hop

The Lindy Hop is an American Swing dance that evolved in the 1920s and '30s in Harlem, New York City. It experienced a revival in the 1980s.[36] In "Wishy-washy", Ivy asks Freckle whether he knows the Lindy Hop and states that it is a new dance in New York.


Maryland Heights

Maryland Heights

Maryland Heights is a suburb of St. Louis.[37]. "Scrapbook" reveals that Sable Stone and Quarry's new quarry, created in "Quarrymen", is located in Maryland Heights.

Mata Hari

Mata Hari

Mata Hari was the stage name of Margaretha Geertruida "M'greet" Zelle. She was a Dutch dancer and courtesan accused of espionage and executed by firing squad in France in 1917.[38] Mitzi used to perform what she referred to as the Mata Hari song.[39]



McClure's Magazine was an American monthly magazine. During the 1920s it was primarily a women's magazine, but McClure's has an extensive history, including being credited with creating muckraking journalism. Check it out at Wikipedia. In "Growltiger", Ivy is reading a McClure's while waiting for Freckle.

Missouri Pacific Railroad

The Missouri Pacific Railroad was one of the first railroads in the United States west of the Mississippi River.[40] On October 21, 1921, Rocky wrote a letter to Freckle while riding the Missouri Pacific Railroad.[2]

Molotov cocktail

A Molotov cocktail is an improvised explosive often used by those who do not have access to hand grenades, consisting of a bottle containing a flammable substance and an ignition source.[41] Rocky uses Molotov cocktails when he attacks the pig farm during the events of "Blitzwagen" through "Schadenfreude".


Nut zipper

Nut zippers

A nut zippper is a candy developed in the mid 1920s. It is a mix of caramel and peanuts.[42] In "Vaudevillian", Asa offers a nut zipper to Mordecai.




A peccary is a medium-sized mammal that closely resembles a pig. They are found in the southwestern area of North America and throughout Central and South America.[43] Avril, one of the pig farmers, speculates that some of the bones he and Emery discover in "Echolalia" are from peccaries.



Phylloxera are a type of insect originally native to eastern North America and known for feeding on the roots and leaves of grapevines.[44] In "Briar-patch", Wick refers to a phylloxera infestation in Europe.


Mordecai wears pince-nez.

Pince-nez are a style of eyeglasses that were popular in the 19th century. They lack earpieces and are supported by pinching the wearer's nose.[45] Mordecai wears a set of pince-nez.



Quicklime, also called burnt lime or calcium oxide, is a white, caustic chemical compound.[46] In "Quicklime", Mitzi mentions that the "mess" remaining after the pig farmers' failed attack on Lackadaisy can be cleaned up with quicklime, suggesting how she intends to deal with them.



A roustabout is a laborer who typically performs temporary, unskilled work. The term often refers to circus workers or natural gas or oil rig workers.[47] Rocky once worked at a circus as a roustabout.[2]


The Saturday Evening Post

The Saturday Evening Post

The Saturday Evening Post is a bimonthly American magazine, though during the timeframe of Lackadaisy it was a weekly publication.[48] The Saturday Evening Post published some of P.G. Wodehouse's work. Tracy noted The Saturday Evening Post as a specific example of a magazine in which Wodehouse's work would have appeared.[49]


A shiv.

A shiv is a slang term for any sharp or pointed instrument used as a knife-like weapon.[50] In "Academia", Rocky notes that while living with hobos sounds like fun, they tend to "shiv you and take your stuff".

Sickle Mower

A sickle mower.

A sickle mower is a farm implement that includes a long bar with sharp blades attached, used for cutting grass.[51] In "Dead-run", Rocky and Ivy try to stop a hearse from pursuing them by causing it to run over a sickle mower.

Sisters of Mercy

The Sisters of Mercy, more properly the Religious Order of the Sisters of Mercy, is an order of Roman Catholic women vowed to serve people who suffer from poverty, sickness and lack of education with a special concern for women and children.[52] In "Wherewithal", Wick asks Ivy if she has joined the Sisters of Mercy when she asks him for money to pay for medical assistance for Viktor.


A Slovak is a member of a West Slavic people that are primarily from Slovakia and speak the Slovak language. No really, that's what Wikipedia says about it. See for yourself. Viktor is a Slovak.[53]

Spiritus frumenti

Spiritus frumenti is Whisky, an alcoholic liquid.[54] In "Defiance", Rocky asks Viktor where he can obtain spiritus frumenti.

Spring house

A spring house.

A spring house is a building that was used for refrigeration in rural areas before electric refrigeration was available. It is usually a one-room building constructed over the source of a spring.[55]. Rocky and Ivy find a spring house holding liquor in "Begorra".


A Ukrainian vodka still

A still is a device used for producing alcoholic beverages.[56] The pig farmers had a working still in their barn."Scathefire".

Struggle Buggy

A 1920s slang term for the backseat of a car. The term generally carries romantic connotations.[57] Rocky in particular is fond of the term, especially in regards to Freckle and Ivy.[58][59]


The Perils of Pauline

The Perils of Pauline

The Perils of Pauline is a motion picture serial from 1914. Pauline is often cited as a famous example of a damsel in distress.[60] In "Formaldehyde", Rocky notes that the pig farmers intended to have him reenact The Perils of Pauline.

Tire Iron

(Bicycle) Tire Irons

A tire iron is a metal tool used in working with tires that have inner tubes. They have not been in common use since the 1950s.[61] In "Retinue", Rocky is holding a tire iron in a threatening manner as he surprises Wick, though he apparently only means to scare him.

Tommy Gun

Tommy gun
Freckle wielding a Tommy gun

The Tommy gun, more properly called a Thompson submachine gun, is a firearm that became infamous during Prohibition. It was named for its inventor, John T. Thompson.[62] The pig farmers are carrying Tommy guns when they break into Lackadaisy in "Drygulch".

Treasury Department

The Treasury Department, more properly referred to as the Department of the Treasury, is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. It was established in 1789. During the time of Lackadaisy, crimes relating to Prohibition would fall under the Department of the Treasury via the Bureau of Prohibition.[63][64] In "Killjoy", in response to Zib's statement that Lackadaisy is being raided, Mitzi asks whether the Treasury Department is involved. Dom Drago tells Zib that he is an agent of the Treasury Department in "Revenuer".

Tuatha Dé Danann

The Tuatha Dé Danann are a race of people in Irish mythology.[65] Nina refers to them while talking to Rocky and Freckle about the wonders of St. Patrick's Day in "Shenanigans".



Mitzi playing the ukulele.

A ukulele is a four-stringed form of Hawaiian guitar that originated in the 19th century.[66] Mitzi has played the ukulele as a member of Zib's band, and in "Loggerheads", Asa offers to let Mitzi and the band perform at the Marigold Room.



Rudolph Valentino

Rudolph Valentino was an Italian actor and sex icon of the 1920s. He was known as the "Latin Lover". One film he starred in was The Sheik.[67] In "Valentino", Viktor suggests that Mordecai return a woman's interested look with a Valentino-like expression. During the ensuing debate Mordecai at one point refers to Viktor as "Sheik".

Vanity Fair

Vanity Fair, April 1921

Vanity Fair is a pop culture, fashion, and current affairs magazine. It was established in 1913 when Condé Nast purchased a men's fashion magazine and renamed it Dress and Vanity Fair. The magazine was ultimately renamed Vanity Fair in 1914. [68] In "Bee-line", Ivy is planning to bring Viktor at least one copy of Vanity Fair.


Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi was an Italian Baroque composer, priest and violinist.[69] In a letter to Freckle dated August, 1923, Rocky notes that a number of wasps nesting inside a fiddle did not seem to appreciate Vivaldi's music.[2]


Vogue, May 1917

Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine that was founded as a weekly publication by Arthur Baldwin Turnure in 1892.[70] In "Bee-line", Ivy is planning to bring Viktor at least one copy of Vogue.



A wag is a person given to mischievous behavior.[71] In "Misdemeanor", Zib refers to the cops who have arrested him as wags after they reveal that they have taken his money.


P.G. Wodehouse

P. G. Wodehouse was an English humorist for more than seventy years, who lived from 1881 to 1975. Wodehouse's work was serialized in magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post.[49]. Read more about him at Wikipedia here. In "Rhubarb", Ivy mentions that she was thinking about reading Viktor the latest Wodehouse.


  1. ^ Aloe vera at Wikipedia
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Correspondence"
  3. ^ Amygdala at Wikipedia
  4. ^ Arraignment at Wikipedia
  5. ^ a b "Misdemeanor"
  6. ^ Bail at Wikipedia
  7. ^ Bakelite at Wikipedia
  8. ^ The Barrymore family at Wikipedia
  9. ^ Bench warrant at Wikipedia
  10. ^ Bevo at Wikipedia
  11. ^ Blackguard at Wiktionary
  12. ^ Bolshevik at Wikipedia
  13. ^ Breakaway at Wikipedia
  14. ^ Breeches at Wikipedia
  15. ^ Cad at Wikipedia
  16. ^ Judaism 101:Expressions and Greetings
  17. ^ Charleston at Wikipedia
  18. ^ Chloral hydrate at Wikipedia
  19. ^ Dakotas at Wikipedia
  20. ^ Dionysus at Wikipedia
  21. ^ Dyspepsia at Wikipedia
  22. ^ Escapology at Wikipedia
  23. ^ Sengoídelc - Exclamations
  24. ^ Flivver at Wikipedia
  25. ^ Model T on Wikipedia
  26. ^ Gadabout at
  27. ^ Gam at
  28. ^ Hephaestus at Wikipedia
  29. ^ Hibernia at Wikipedia
  30. ^ Hostler at Wikipedia
  31. ^ Irish reel at Encyclopedia Britannica
  32. ^ Kankakee at Wikipedia
  33. ^ Kneecapping at Wikipedia
  34. ^ Robert Edward Lee at Wikipedia
  35. ^ Little Lord Fauntleroy at Wikipedia
  36. ^ The Lindy Hop at Wikipedia
  37. ^ Maryland Heights at Wikipedia
  38. ^ Mata Hari at Wikipedia
  39. ^ "Vestige"
  40. ^ Missouri Pacific Railroad at Wikipedia
  41. ^ Molotov Cocktail on Wikipedia
  42. ^ Nut zippers on Wikipedia
  43. ^ Peccary at Wikipedia
  44. ^ Phylloxera at Wikipedia
  45. ^ Pince-nez on Wikipedia
  46. ^ Quicklime at Wikipedia
  47. ^ Roustabout at Wikipedia
  48. ^ Saturday Evening Post at Wikipedia
  49. ^ a b "Rhubarb"
  50. ^ Shiv at Wikipedia
  51. ^ Sickle mower at Wikipedia
  52. ^ Sisters of Mercy at Wikipedia
  53. ^ "Formaldehyde"
  54. ^ Spiritus Frumenti at Henriette's Herbal Homepage
  55. ^ Spring house at Wikipedia
  56. ^ Still at Wikipedia.
  57. ^ Struggle Buggy defined at the Antique Automobile Club of America
  58. ^ "Bee-line"
  59. ^ "Gallivant"
  60. ^ The Perils of Pauline on Wikipedia
  61. ^ Tire iron at Wikipedia
  62. ^ The Tommy gun at Wikipedia
  63. ^ Bureau of Prohibition at Wikipedia
  64. ^ Department of the Treasury at Wikipedia
  65. ^ Tuatha Dé Danann at Wikipedia
  66. ^ Ukulele at Wikipedia
  67. ^ Rudolph Valentino at Wikipedia
  68. ^ Vanity Fair at Wikipeida
  69. ^ Vivaldi at Wikipedia
  70. ^ Vogue at Wikipeida
  71. ^ Wag at